This IC Staff study — just as all other Great Man, leader-centric models — defines individuals as leaders only in “the top three” SES Positions. Ironically, modern leadership models contend leadership is NOT positional, it is essentially relational (socio-politicaly and intellectually critical).
This is a typical study of senior managers called executives, who are incorrectly labeled “leaders,” mostly because Americans believe we must have Good Leadership to Succeed! This kind of research isn't critical, it's reinforcing Great Man nonsense.
The entire OPM SES system is labeled a Leadership system! It's not.
Reference: E. L. Hatfield, Finding Leaders: Preparing the Intelligence Community for Succession Management, National Defense Intelligence College, Occasional Paper Number Seventeen, July 2008
PDF (96 Pages): Finding_Leaders