The basic purpose of these ten forms is the presentation of a false picture of reality.
You could find more forms, or divide these ten into sub-categories.
The ten basic forms are:
- Direct lying about matters of fact.
- Leaving out vital information.
- Limited hangout. (This is an admission of a crime or a mistake, which only partially reveals the whole truth. The idea is that by admitting a fraction of what really happened and burying the biggest revelations, people will be satisfied and go away, and the story will never be covered again.)
- Shutting down the truth after publishing it—includes failing to follow up and investigate a story more deeply.
- Not connecting dots between important pieces of data.
- Censoring the truth, wherever it is found (or calling it “fake news”).
- Using biased “experts” to present slanted or false “facts.”
- Repeating a false story many times—this includes the echo-chamber effect, in which a number of outlets “bounce” the false story among themselves.
- Claiming a reasonable and true consensus exists, when it doesn’t, when there are many important dissenters, who are shut out from offering their analysis.
- Employing a panoply of effects (reputation of the media outlet, voice quality of the anchor, acting skills, dry mechanical language, studio lighting, overlay of electronic transmissions, etc.) to create an impression of elevated authority which is beyond challenge.